Uncategorized08 Oct 2010 12:18 pm
Each year in the United States, it is estimated that more than 750,000 women experience an episode of acute PID. More than 75,000 women may become infertile each year as a result of PID, and a large proportion of the ectopic pregnancies occurring every year are due to the consequences of PID.
Pelvic inflammatory disease (or disorder) (PID) is a generic term for inflammation of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries as it progresses to scar formation with adhesions to nearby tissues and organs. This may lead to infections. PID is a vague term and can refer to viral, fungal, parasitic, though most often bacterial infections. PID should be classified by affected organs, the stage of the infection, and the organism(s) causing it. Although HI an STI is often the cause, many other routes are possible, including lymphatic, postpartum, postabortal (either miscarriage or abortion) or intrauterine device (IUD) related, and hematogenous spread. Two thirds of patients with laparoscopic evidence of previous PID were not aware they had PID.
The most common symptoms of PID include:
• Fever (not always present; may come and go)
• Pain or tenderness in the pelvis, lower abdomen, or sometimes the lower back
• Vaginal discharge with abnormal color, texture, or smell
Other symptoms that may occur with PID:
• Bleeding after intercourse
• Frequent or painful urination
• Increased menstrual cramping
• Irregular menstrual bleeding or spotting
• Lack of appetite
• Nausea, with or without vomiting
• No menstruation
• Painful sexual intercourse
PID occurs when bacteria move upward from a woman’s vagina or cervix (opening to the uterus) into her reproductive organs. Many different organisms can cause PID, but many cases are associated with gonorrhea and chlamydia, two very common bacterial STDs. A prior episode of PID increases the risk of another episode because the reproductive organs may be damaged during the initial bout of infection.
Sexually active women in their childbearing years are most at risk, and those under age 25 are more likely to develop PID than those older than 25. This is partly because the cervix of teenage girls and young women is not fully matured, increasing their susceptibility to the STDs that are linked to PID.
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